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MLA Citations 9th Edition

How to cite sources using MLA 9 [Ninth edition, 2021].

Web Sources General Formatting Tips

Purely internet sources that have no printed equivalent can include:

  • Whole websites
  • Web pages
  • Blogs
  • Blog posts
  • Podcasts
  • Podcast episodes

The MLA template elements for web sources commonly include: 

  1. Author - The writers, editors, translators, artists, organizations, governments, etc. who created the source.
  2. Title of Source -  Article title, page title, website title, as applicable.
  3. Title of Container - If the source is a part of a larger online work, title of this work, for example, website, blog, and so on.
  4. Version - If applicable, any version numbers available, including editions (ed.), revisions, posting dates.
  5. Publisher - Publisher of the work.
  6. Publication Date - The date given with the source. How specific this is and how it is structured is determined by the publisher.
  7. Supplemental Elements - Date of access in the format: day, month abbreviated to three letters, year,  preceded by the word "Accessed." This is used only when an online source has no publication date, or if the source may be changed or removed. If you are not sure whether to add this element, ask a librarian for help.


Complete website

Mikkelson, David. Rumor Has It. Snopes Media Group, 1996-2016, Accessed 17 Oct. 2020.

Article from a news website

Tinker, Ben. "How to Make Better School Lunches." Turner Broadcasting, 23 Apr. 2015,

Article from a government website

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Climate Change, 17 Aug. 2021, Accessed 1 Sept. 2021.

Blog post

Geist, Michael. "Pokémon Go Brings New ‘Augmented Reality’ Legal Issues to Light." CyberSmokeBlog, 20 July 2016,


  • Use the Twitter handle in place of an author's name, followed by the tweet in its entirety in quotes.  
  • Twitter will be the container publisher, followed by the date of the posting and location. 

For example  

White House. "More than 30M Americans live in areas where there is no broadband infrastructure that provides minimally acceptable speeds." Twitter, 10 Aug. 2021,