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MLA Citations 9th Edition

How to cite sources using MLA 9 [Ninth edition, 2021].

Audio and Video General Formatting Tips

Audio and video sources include:

  • Films (in streaming or DVD format)
  • Televised series and episodes (in streaming or DVD format)
  • Radio programs
  • Podcasts
  • Music (songs, CDs, vinyl albums, online albums, MP3s)
  • Videos on the internet (such as YouTube, TikTok, or Amazon or streaming videos)

The MLA template elements for audio and video commonly includes: 

  1. Author - The writers, editors, translators, artists, composer, performer organizations, governments, etc. who created the source.
  2. Title of Source -  For example, an episode or an album track.
  3. Title of Container -  If applicable, title of the larger work (e.g. an album that contains a song).
  4. Contributor - Key contributors, if any, are listed here. Others are optional.
  5. Number - If applicable, any assigned numbers (e.g. an episode or track number).
  6. Publisher - Entity that made the work available (e.g. the producer of a film, a recording company, or a website that hosts the work).
  7. Publication Date - The date given with the source. How specific this is and how it is structured is determined by the publisher.

Audio and video offered online, whether via a website or library database such as Films on Demand or Kanopy, are listed using the same information but with the addition of information for the online container:

  1. Container Publisher - Name of  database or website.
  2. Container Location - DOI, permalink, or URL for the source, in this order of preference. DOI addresses always begin with For permalinks and URLs remove http:// or https://. 
  3. Container Supplemental Elements - Date of access in the format: day, month abbreviated to three letters, year, preceded by the word "Accessed." This is used only when an online source has no publication date, or if the source may be changed or removed. If you are not sure whether to add this element, ask a librarian for help.

Audio and Video

Albums and Songs

  • Generally, music citations begin with the artist's name, or they can be listed by the composers or performers.  
  • A number of contributors can be listed in the citation depending on their importance.
  • You can also choose to cite an entire work (full album or show), or just a portion (specific song or segment).  
  • Titles of songs are listed in quotation marks, names of albums in italics. 

Whole album    

Lady Gaga. The Fame Monster. Streamline Records, 2009. 

Individual song on an album   

Lady Gaga, et al. "Telephone (featuring Beyonce)." The Fame Monster, Streamline Records, 2009. 

Online album  

Beyonce. "Sorry." Lemonade,  Parkwood Entertainment, 2016,

Spotify individual song  

Rae Morris. "Skin." Cold, Atlantic Records, 2014, Spotify,


Morris, Wesley, and Jenna Wortham. "Lil Nas X? Not Sorry!"  Still Processing, 15 Apr. 2021. The New York Times,


  • Can be listed with the title first, or if you are citing the contribution of an individual, cite with their name first. 

Entire film

The Dark Knight. Directed by Christopher Nolan, Warner Brothers Entertainment, 2008.  

Director or performer as author

Nolan, Christopher, director. The Dark Knight. Warner Brothers Entertainment, 2008. 

Bale, Christian, performer. The Dark Knight. Warner Brothers Entertainment, 2008. 

Film Viewed on a Streaming Video Database

The Florida Project. Directed by Sean Baker, A24films, 2017. Kanopy,

Film Viewed on an App

Silver Linings Playbook. Weinstein Company, 2012. Netflix app.    

Recorded Series

  • Recorded series - such as those on DVD's - are cited the same way as films.
  • Publisher is normally the recording distributor.
  • If the title of the recorded series is different than the original, use the title of the recorded series. 

Recorded series episode with different series title

"Larry vs Michael J. Fox." Curb Your Enthusiasm created by Larry David, season 8, episode 10, HBO Productions, 2011.

Televised Episodes

  • Publisher is normally the network or streaming service that televised. 

For example

"The Blessing Way." The X-Files, created by Chris Carter, season 3, episode 1, Fox, 22 Sept. 1995.

"I Borg." Star Trek: The Next Generation, season 5, episode 3, Paramount Pictures, 1992. Netflix, 

YouTube Video

"Unlucky Hedgehog Rescued from a Drain." YouTube, uploaded by Wildlife Aid, 13 Sept. 2016,

Radio Broadcast

  • You can cite an entire episode, or a segment.
  • Cite with the title first, or if you are citing the contribution of an individual, with their name.
  • You can include several contributors in the citation, depending on their pertinence. 

Radio series

The Current. Narrated by Anna Maria Tremonti, CBC Radio One, 22 Oct. 2012.

Episode of a radio series

"France Proposes Homework Ban, Should Canada do the Same?" The Current, narrated by Anna Maria Tremonti, CBC Radio One, 22 Oct. 2012.