When to Cite Sources

Research Papers and Other Writing Projects

decorative image

When citing sources in research papers, use a conventional style, such as APA, MLA, Chicago, or Turabian. Each style specifies a uniform way of citing sources that will:

  • Give an orderly appearance to your bibliography or reference list
  • Provide all the essential elements of information that a reader will need to locate the source.


When giving a speech, cite your sources orally.  Provide enough information to allow an audience member to locate the source.  Typically, you should include:

  • author or creator
  •  title of the work
  • date

decorative image

Additionally, consider offering a brief statement about your source’s credibility by stating the source’s connection to the topic.

PowerPoint Presentations

 decorative text

When you use PowerPoint, be sure to cite sources for any direct quotations or images appearing on a slide.  Write the information in a small font in a textbox at the bottom of the slide or under the image. 

If you use a graphic from the Internet, you should cite it, too, unless it is in the public domain (freeware).

Your instructor may also expect you to include a bibliography slide at the end of your slideshow.   Your bibliography should not take the place of appropriate oral citations offered during your presentation.