Works Cited: Audio & Video

Audio and Video sources include:

  • Films or Movies
  • Television Shows, Series and Episodes
  • Radio Programs
  • Podcasts
  • Music (songs, CDs, online albums, MP3s)
  • Videos on the internet (such as YouTube or Amazon or streaming videos)

Citations to these resources will contain as much of the following information as can be collected:

  1. Author, Artist, Composer or Performer  (if available)
  2. Title of the episode or  track (if available)
  3. Title of the work in italics
  4. Producer of the work (such as a film or recording company or site that contains the work)
  5. Date (year the work was created)
  6. URL of the website if the work appears on the web.

See the examples that follow.

Examples: Audio & Video Sources in Works Cited

Songs or Albums

Music can be cited multiple ways, depending on the "container" where you accessed the music.
Generally, music citations begin with the artist's name, or they can be listed by the composers or performers.  You can include a number of contributors in the citation, depending on their pertinence. You can also choose to cite an entire work (full album or show), or just a portion (specific song or segment).  Titles of songs are listed in quotation marks, names of albums in italics. Leave out the http:// from URL's.   Note punctuation!

Whole album:    Gaga, LadyThe Fame Monster, Streamline Records, 2009. 

Individual song on an album:   "Telephone (featuring Beyonce')",  The Fame Monster. Streamline Records, 2009. 

Audiobook:  Inglis, Rob, narrator. The Hobbit, by J.R.R. Tolkien. Recorded Books, 1991.  .

Online Album:  Beyonce'. "Sorry." Lemonade,  Parkwood Entertainment, 2016,

Spotify:  Rae Morris. "Skin." Cold, Atlantic Records, 2014, Spotify,


Films or Movies

There are a variety of ways to cite films or movies.  They can be listed with the title first, or if you are citing the contribution of a particular individual, cited with their name first. You can include a number of contributors in the citation, depending on their pertinence. Note punctuation!

The Dark Knight. Directed by Christopher Nolan, Warner Brothers Entertainment, 2008.  

Nolan, Christopher, director. The Dark Knight. Warner Brothers Entertainment, 2008. 

Bale, Christian, performer. The Dark Knight. Warner Bros. Entertainment, 2008. 

The Dark Knight. Directed by Christopher Nolan, performances by Christian Bale, Heath Ledger, Aaron Eckhart, Michael Caine, and Maggie Gyllenhaal. Warner Brothers Entertainment, 2008.  

Television Programs

Cite recorded TV programs--such as those on DVD's--the same way that films are cited:

"Episode name". Series name. Distributor, date.

If the title of the recorded series is different than the original one (in the  example below, the Curb Your Enthusiasm DVD is called Curb Your Enthusiasm, Season Eight in the recorded version  instead of just Curb Your Enthusiasm as in the broadcast version)   use the title of the recorded series.  For example:

"Larry vs Michael J. Fox." Curb Your Enthusiasm: Season Eight, produced and directed by Larry David. HBO Productions, 2011.


Television Broadcast

Cite broadcast programs beginning with the title of the episode in quotation marks. Then add the name of the series or program in italics, followed by the network name, call letters of the station the date of the broadcast and city. Note punctuation!

"The Blessing Way." The X-Files. Fox, WXIA, Atlanta, 19 Jul. 1998.

"Barack Obama Interview. The Daily Show. Comedy Central Network, New York,  18 Oct. 2012.  

Radio Broadcast

You can cite an entire episode, or a particular segment. These can be listed with the title first, or if you are citing the contribution of a particular individual, with their name. You can include a number of contributors in the citation, depending on their pertinence. 

These guidelines are for broadcast radio. If you are citing a recording of a program published digitally, on CD, or in another medium, follow the guidelines for Audio Recording. If you are citing a program streaming online, follow the guidelines for Online Audio or Video.

The Current. Narr. Anna Maria Tremonti. CBC Radio One. 22 Oct. 2012.

"France proposes homework ban, should Canada do the same?" The Current. Narr. Anna Maria Tremonti. CBC Radio One. 22 Oct. 2012.

Tremonti, Anna Maria, Narr. "France proposes homework ban, should Canada do the same?" The Current. CBC Radio One. 22 Oct. 2012.

YouTube Video

"Unlucky Hedgehog Rescued from a Drain." YouTube, uploaded by Wildlife Aid, 13 Sept. 2016, Accessed 3 Oct. 2016.